# Tag Types

In default scala, we have a way to alias types.

type Foo = String


This is great as a way to make code more readable, but if your type logically has a more limited range of support then the type won't enforce this. Or if the type you are working with is used in different places to mean different things, then implicits wont know what to pick.

Limited range of support:

type KiloGram = Int
def someWorkWithKiloGrams(value: KiloGram): KiloGram
someWorkWithKiloGrams(Integer.MIN_VALUE)


Scalaz provides a way to Tag these types. What is tagging? Its the act of creating a new type that has a reference to another type. Lets look at the code for KiloGram.

import scalaz._, Scalaz._
sealed trait KiloGram
def KiloGram[A](a: A): A @@ KiloGram = Tag[A, KiloGram](a)


Here we define a sealed trait KiloGram as the type we want to annotation other types with. We also define a KiloGram function that takes any type A and returns A @@ KiloGram. This is a new type and not an alias to a type, so any time you use it with an A you must convert to the proper type.

def someWorkWithKiloGram(value: Int @@ KiloGram): Int @@ KiloGram =
KiloGram(value - 1)

someWorkWithKiloGram(KiloGram(10))
// 9: Int @@ KiloGram

someWorkWithKiloGram(10)
<console>:79: error: type mismatch;
found   : Int(10)
required: scalaz.@@[Int,KiloGram]
(which expands to)  Int with AnyRef{type Tag = KiloGram}
someWorkWithKiloGram(10)
^


This is nice because now each method can choose what base types they can work with, and still require callers to Tag the type before calling as a way to enforce that the values make sense. The same can be accomplished with type aliases, but you could never enforce that a user must do work to use the type. With Tag, you now make the user do work to tag the type before calling, making it more explicit to the caller.

So how does this work?

type Tagged[T] = {type Tag = T}
type @@[+T, Tag] = T with Tagged[Tag]

object Tag {
@inline def apply[A, T](a: A): A @@ T = a.asInstanceOf[A @@ T]
}


When working with a tagged type, it really is just a cast to another type. The fact that its inlined is nice so all conversions to KiloGram are just a cast and nothing more.

At the beginning, it was pointed out that tagging can be used to make implicits over similar types easier to work with. Lets look at how this works.

Implicits over similar types:

import java.io.File
type PluginRepo = File
type ConfigRepo = File

def printConfigRepo(implicit repo: ConfigRepo): Unit = println(repo)

implicit val plugin: PluginRepo = new File("/tmp")
implicit val config: ConfigRepo = new File("/tmp")

printConfigRepo
<console>:71: error: ambiguous implicit values:
both value plugin of type => PluginRepo
and value config of type => ConfigRepo
match expected type ConfigRepo
printConfigRepo
^


Type alias fail us went working with implicits and same referenced type. Now lets look at the same thing using tagged types.

sealed trait Owner
sealed trait Plugin extends Owner
sealed trait Config extends Owner

def Plugin[A](a: A): A @@ Plugin = Tag[A, Plugin](a)
def Config[A](a: A): A @@ Config = Tag[A, Config](a)


We first need to define the types to tag with and a function that will cast for us. Once we have that we can use it.

def printConfigRepo(implicit repo: File @@ Config) = println(repo)

implicit val config = Config(new File("/tmp/config"))

printConfigRepo
// /tmp/config


Great, works just as expected, so now lets see if adding a Plugin file breaks this.

implicit val plugin = Plugin(new File("/tmp/plugin"))

printConfigRepo
// /tmp/config


Great! Adding the Plugin implict doesn't break the Config code.

So what are the main differences between type aliases and tagged types? A type alias is just that, an alias that the compiler knows about. To the compiler PluginRepo is no different than File. A tagged type is a brand new type that is saying File with Taggged[Plugin]. The generated type is-a File, but its also a Tagged[Plugin]. In order to do this you do need to cast the object to this type. So the main difference at runtime is that alias doesn't have any effects at runtime where as tagged types require a cast.